A number of legal powers, duties or regulatory tools exist which are relevant to this activity and its management. These are summarised in the table below:
|Legal Power, Duty or Regulatory Tool||Relevant Legislation||Lead Organisation|
|Power to create Bylaws for National Nature Reserves||National Park and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 (Sections 20 and 106)||Natural England|
|Requirement for SSSI Consent, Assent or Advice
|Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) (Section 28)||Natural England|
|Requirement for Habitats Regulations Assessment (HRA) of impacts
|The Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017 (Regulation 63)||All Competent or Responsible Authorities as defined by the Regulation.|
The Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve (NNR) is the main location for wildfowling along the Berwickshire and Northumberland coast. Wildfowling is also permitted on a small section of the Tweed estuary.
Natural England has Bylaws in place at the Lindisfarne NNR which restrict wildfowling activity and operate a wildfowl permit scheme for the site. Populations are regularly monitored and an annual end of season report provides data on returns for the year. A wildfowl warden enforces and monitors compliance with licence conditions.
Eight punt gun permits are available, four for the people of Holy Island, four for people who live off the island. Two island permits are currently issued, and all four off-island permits are in use. Punt gunning is further regulated by a restriction of only one boat being allowed to operate for the purpose of this activity at any one time. Tides, weather and the cost of shot also help to regulate punt gunning to a sustainable level.
Lindisfarne Refuge Project was initiated by Natural England and in collaboration with the British Association for Shooting and Conservation (BASC) and the Northumbria, Tyneside and Durham Wildfowlers, has set aside a part of the NNR where wildfowling is not allowed. The ‘Refuge Area’ covers Budle Bay and the south end of Fenham Flats, including half of the seagrass beds.
There is limited knowledge about the wider impacts of punt gunning